The 54 Ethnic Groups of Vietnam

Pre­sent­ed here is an alpha­bet­i­cal list of the 54 Eth­nic Groups of Viet­nam along with basic infor­ma­tion about each group. You can use the search box on the top right. More infor­ma­tion is avail­able at the bot­tom of the page.

No.Eth­nic GroupPop­u­la­tion (2019)Pri­ma­ry Location(s)Lan­guage Fam­i­lyOth­er Names
1Ba Na286,910Cen­tral Vietnam:
Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Phu Yen
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Bah­nar, Ba Na, Bana
2Bố Y3,232North­ern Vietnam:
Lao Cai, Ha Giang
Tai–Kadai:
Tai
Bo Y
3Brâu
525Cen­tral Vietnam:
Kon Tum
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Brao, Brau
4Bru-Vân Kiều94,598Cen­tral Vietnam:
Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Dak Lak
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Bru-Van Kieu
5Chăm178,948Cen­tral Vietnam 
South­ern Vietnam:

Ninh, Thuan, Binh Thuan, Phu Yen, An Giang
Aus­trone­sian:
Malayo-
Polynesian
Cham
6Chơ Ro29,520South­ern Vietnam:
Dong Nai, Ba Ria, Vung Tau, Binh Thuan
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Cho Ro, Chơ-ro
7Chu Ru23,242Cen­tral Vietnam:
Lam Dong
Aus­trone­sian:
Malayo-
Polynesian
Cho-ru (Chru)
8Chứt7,513Cen­tral Vietnam:
Quang Binh
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Viet-Muong
Chut
9Co40,442Cen­tral Vietnam: 
Quang Ngai, Quang Nam
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Co
10Cờ Ho200,800Cen­tral Vietnam:
Lam Dong
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Co Ho
11Cờ Lao4,003North­ern Vietnam:
Ha Giang
Tai–Kadai:
Kra
Co Lao
12Cống2,729North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau, Dien Bien
Sino-Tibetan:
Tibeto-Burman
Phunoi, Cong, Khong
13Cơ Tu74,173Cen­tral Vietnam
Quang Nam, Thua Thien-Hue
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Co Tu, Katu, Cotu, Ca-tu, Ka-tu
14Dao891,151North­ern Vietnam:
Hmong–MienYao, Mien
15Ê Đê398,671Cen­tral Vietnam:
Dak Lak, Phu Yen
Aus­trone­sian:
Malayo-
Polynesian
E De, Rade, Ra de
16Gia Rai513,930Cen­tral Viet­nam:
Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Lak
Aus­trone­sian:
Malayo-
Polynesian
Jarai, J’rai, Jrai, Giarai
17Giáy67,858North­ern Vietnam:
Lao Cai, Ha Giang, Lai Chau, Cao Bang
Tai–Kadai:
Tai
Giay
18Giẻ Triêng63,322Cen­tral Vietnam:
Kon Tum, Quang Nam
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Gie Trieng
19Hà Nhì25,539North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Dien Bien
Sino-Tibetan:
Tibeto-Burman
Ha Nhi, Hani
20Hmong1,393,547North­ern VietnamHmong–MienMeo, Mong, Mông, Mèo, Miao (In China)
21Hoa749,466Across Viet­namSino-Tibetan:
Chinese/Han
22Hrê149,460Cen­tral Vietnam:
Quang Ngai
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
H’re, Hre
23Kháng16,180North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau, Son La, Dien Bien
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Khang
24Khmer1,319,652South­ern Vietnam:
Soc Trang, Tra Vinh, Kien Giang, An Giang, Ca Mua
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Kho-me, Khmer Krom
25Khơ Mú90,612North­ern Vietnam:
Nghe An, Dien Bien, Son La, Lai Chau
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Kho Mu, Khmu
26Kinh82,085,826 Across Viet­namAus­troasi­at­ic:
Viet-Muong
Viet, Viet­namese
27La Chí15,126 North­ern Vietnam:
Ha Giiang
Tai–Kadai:
Kra
La Chi, Lachi
28La Ha10,157North­ern Vietnam:
Son La
Tai–Kadai:
Kra
29La Hủ12,113North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau
Sino-Tibetan:
Tibeto-Burman
La Hu
30Lao17,532North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau, Dien Bien, Son La
Tai–Kadai:
Tai
31Lô Lô4,827North­ern Vietnam:
Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Lai Chau
Sino-Tibetan:
Tibeto-Burman
Lo Lo, Yi
32Lự6,757North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau
Tai–Kadai:
Tai
Lu
33Mạ50,322Cen­tral Vietnam:
Lam Dong, Dak Nong, Dong Nai
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Ma
34Mảng4,650North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau, 
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Mang
35Mnông127,334Cen­tral Vietnam:
Dak Lak, Dak Nong
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Mnong
36Mường1,452,095North­ern Vietnam:
Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, Phu Tho, Son La, Ninh Binh
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Viet-Muong
Muong
37Ngái1,649North­ern Vietnam:
Thai Nguyen, Binh Thuan, Ho Chi Minh City
Sino-Tibetan:
Chinese/Han
Ngai
38Nùng1,083,298North­ern Vietnam:
Lang Son, Cao Bang, Bac Giang
Tai–Kadai:
Tai
Nung
39Ơ Đu428 Cen­tral Vietnam:
Nghe An
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
O Du, odu
40Pà Thẻn 8,248North­ern Vietnam:
Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang
Hmong–MienPa Then, Pathen
41Phù Lá12,471North­ern Vietnam:
Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Ha Giang, Dien Bien
Sino-Tibetan:
Tibeto-Burman
Phu La, Phula
42Pu Péo903North­ern Vietnam:
Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang
Tai–Kadai:
Kra
43Ra Glai146,613Cen­tral Vietnam:
Ninh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, Binh Thuan
Aus­trone­sian:
Malayo-
Polynesian
Roglai
44Rơ Măm639Cen­tral Vietnam:
Kon Tum
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Ro Mam, Romam
45Sán Chay201,398North­ern Vietnam:
Tuyen Quang, Thai Nguyen, Bac Giang
Tai–Kadai:
Tai
San Chay
46Sán Dìu183,004North­ern Vietnam:
Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc, Bac Giang, Quang Ninh, Tuyen Quang
Sino-Tibetan:
Chinese/Han
San Diu
47Si La909North­ern Vietnam:
Lai Chau, Dien Bien
Sino-Tibetan:
Tibeto-Burman
Sila
48Tà Ôi52,356Cen­tral Vietnam:
Thua Thien Hue
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Ta Oi
49Tày1,845,492North­ern Vietnam:Tai–Kadai:
Tai
Tay
50Thái1,820,950North­ern Vietnam:Tai–Kadai:
Tai
51Thổ91,430North­ern Vietnam:
Nghe An, Thanh Hoa
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Viet-Muong
52X’Tiêng100,752Cen­tral Vietnam:
Binh Phuoc
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Xtieng, Stieng
53Xinh Mun29,503North­ern Vietnam:
Son La, Dien Bien
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Xinh-mun
54Xơ Đăng212,277Cen­tral Vietnam:
Kon Tum, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai
Aus­troasi­at­ic:
Mon-Khmer
Sedang, Xo Dang

Additional Information


List of the 54 Ethnic Groups of Vietnam

Num­ber­ing:
I have orga­nized this list of the 54 eth­nic groups in Viet­nam  alpha­bet­i­cal­ly to make find­ing spe­cif­ic eth­nic groups eas­i­er. The num­ber­ing of the eth­nic groups is arbi­trary (there is no mean­ing oth­er than num­ber­ing them in alpha­bet­i­cal order) and is for ease of ref­er­ence only.

Lan­guage Fam­i­ly:
The more impor­tant and sci­en­tif­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion is “Lan­guage Fam­i­ly”. This can give you a bet­ter idea of which groups are relat­ed to one anoth­er. The pri­ma­ry Lan­guage Fam­i­ly is in bold with the sub­fam­i­ly list­ed below it. In Viet­nam today, many eth­nic groups live near each oth­er but this isn’t nec­es­sar­i­ly an indi­ca­tion of shared her­itage. Read more about the Lan­guage Fam­i­lies here.

Pop­u­la­tion:
Anoth­er help­ful cat­e­go­ry is the num­ber of peo­ple in the eth­nic group. If you are curi­ous about which eth­nic groups have the small­est num­bers you can click on the cat­e­go­ry head­er and sort using this column.

Name Vari­a­tions:
Because the eth­nic groups are known by var­i­ous names and spellings I’ve includ­ed the main vari­a­tions and spellings based on my own expe­ri­ence and the ref­er­ences that I have. This is not a com­plete list. I will include a more com­plete list with­in the indi­vid­ual pages for each eth­nic group.

Ref­er­ences:
I am not an eth­nol­o­gist or lin­guist, just some­one with a pas­sion for eth­nic cul­tures, his­to­ry, and pho­tog­ra­phy. If you find some­thing writ­ten here that is incor­rect, please do send me a mes­sage. I have linked some of my sources for the above infor­ma­tion in the Bib­li­og­ra­phy below.